MicroRNAs for Restenosis and Thrombosis After Vascular Injury.
Percutaneous revascularization revolutionized the therapy of patients with coronary artery disease. Despite continuous technical advances that substantially improved patients’ outcome after percutaneous revascularization, some issues are still open. In particular, restenosis still represents a challenge, even though it was dramatically reduced with the advent of drug-eluting stents. At the same time, drug-eluting stent thrombosis emerged as a major concern because of incomplete or delayed re-endothelialization after vascular injury. The discovery of microRNAs revealed a previously unknown layer of regulation for several biological processes, increasing our knowledge on the biological mechanisms underlying restenosis and stent thrombosis, revealing novel promising targets for more efficient and selective therapies. The present review summarizes recent experimental and clinical evidence on the role of microRNAs after arterial injury, focusing on practical aspects of their potential therapeutic application for selective inhibition of smooth muscle cell proliferation, enhancement of endothelial regeneration, and inhibition of platelet activation after coronary interventions. Application of circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers is also discussed.